24November2017

Materials and Electronics Engineering

Photoluminescence and electronic interaction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes conjugated with oxadiazole materials

Bo-Zhang Yu1, Zhi Yang2,3,*, Yan-Jie Su2,3 and Hu-Lin Li4

Abstract
icon-htmlFull Text Html
icon-pdf-smPDF w/ Links
icon-citExport Citation
Figures

1Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, China
2Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of Ministry of Education, Department of Micro/Nano Electronics, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, P. R. China
3National Engineering Research Center for Nanotechnology, Shanghai 200241, P. R. China
4College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, P. R. China

Materials and Electronics Engineering 2014,1:4

Publication Date (Web): December 15, 2014 (Article)

DOI:10.11605/mee-1-4

*Corresponding author. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Abstract 


Figure 6 Electrical transport of APND films deposited on coplanar interdigitated copper electrodes. (a) I-V curves and C-V curves (inset), and (b) current-thicknesses plot.
      Fabricating dense film of the oxadiazole-based photoelectron materials is usually limited by its low crystallization, which will influence charge injection in the devices. In this paper, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are functionalized by 2-(4-aminophenyl)-5-naphthyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (APND) to form the MWCNTs-APND conjugate. The formation of MWCNTs-APND dense films may be attributed to attraction between coplanar APND, flexible and linear MWCNTs, and π-stacking between APND and MWCNTs. The APND and MWCNTs-APND were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrum, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectrum, and photoluminescence spectrum, and nonlinear electrical measurements. The results indicate UV-Vis absorption of MWCNTs-APND in N, N-dimethylformamide solution is broadened and red-shifted. Its photoluminescence spectrum shows a narrower band than that of APND. The MWCNTs-APND dense films have the same perfect nonlinear electrical properties as those of MWCNTs ones, which is suitable for the potential applications of optoelectronic devices.

 

Keywords

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes, Photoelectron materials, Photoluminescence, Nonlinear electrical properties, Optoelectronic devices

 

Full Text Html

Introduction

           Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have many potential applications ranging from nanoelectronics [1] to biomedical devices [2], because of their exceptional structural, electrical, mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties. For example, CNTs can be well cut out and modified with functional organic materials which be used for light emitting diodes [3], field effect transistors [4], photovoltaic devices [5], supercapacitors, sensors, solar cells, and displays [6-8].

          As electron-injection conjugate materials, the oxadiazole-based molecules can balance charge injections and increase photo-electron quantum efficiency due to their high electron affinity, thus applying to electronic and optical devices [9,10]. However, these materials easily crystallize and chap so that their fabricated films influence charge injections in devices [11,12].

          CNTs can be wrapped or absorbed by polymers due to p-stacking, acid-base reaction, and/or Van der Waals attraction. Their long-term dispersion and orientation should be improved, such as thiophene oligomer, pyrene and porphyrin derivatives, polyaniline, and poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) [1,6-8,13]. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) bonded covalently by naphthalimide resulting in the considerable change in absorption and photoluminescence spectra. A photoexcited pyrene-tethered SWCNTs quenched effectively due to efficient intramolecular energy transfer [14,15]. SWCNTs attached with porphyrin could serve as a sensitive fluorescent probe. SWCNTs covalently functionalized with ferrocene suggested intramolecular electron transfer [16]. Multi- walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified with a ruthenium complex could be applied to sensor by redox potential change or transistor through their contact switching [17].

        In this study, 2-(4-aminophenyl)-5-naphthyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (APND) were prepared as coplanar electron-injection molecules, and grafted on the surfaces of MWCNTs via amide linkage. The APND can be absorbed onto the surfaces of MWCNTs via π-stacking to form MWCNTs-APND conjugates. The MWCNTs-APND dense films are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (1H NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption, photoluminescence spectra and nonlinear electrical measurements. It is found that MWCNTs-APND films, which have high electron transport and excellent photoluminescence properties, can be used as novel optical and electrical materials.

Experimental

Purification of MWCNTs

        Raw MWCNTs from Shenzhen Nanotech Port Co. Ltd. were refluxed in the mixture solution of H2SO4 and HNO3 (volume ratio 3:1) for 40 min, filtered by 0.22 μm polytetrafluoroethylene membrane, and thoroughly washed with deionized water, thus oxidizing into carboxylic acid groups on surfaces of MWCNTs.

Modification of MWCNTs with APND

        In a round bottom flask (100 mL), MWCNTs (30 mg), and 1,3-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC, 700 mg) were added into N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) (40 mL) and dispersed ultrasonically for 10 min at room temperature. Subsequently APND (200 mg) was added under magnetic stirring [18]. After refluxing for 48 h under nitrogen, the resulting mixture was filtered by 0.22 mm polytetrafluoroethylene membrane and washed with deionized water.

Multi-finger electrode coating

        The electrical properties were measured by coplanar interdigitated copper electrodes of 30 mm×200 mm (width× length) on silicon substrates [19]. The APND, MWCNTs and MWCNTs-APND were dispersed in DMF, respectively. The thin films of APND, MWCNTs and MWCNTs-APND were prepared by spin coating and dried under vacuum at 75ºC.

Characterizations

        FT-IR spectra were obtained on Perkin-Elmer System 2000 spectrophotometer (KBr pellets). 1H-NMR spectra were characterized on VANCE DSX-500 spectrometer [500 MHz, Dimethylsulfoxide-D6 (DMSO-D6), 25ºC, tetramethylsilane]. UV-Vis spectra were carried out by TU-1901 spectrophotometer. Photoluminescence emission spectra were obtained by Shimadzu RF-540 fluorescence spectrophotometer. XRD were recorded on D8 Advance Bruker-axs instrument (Cu Ka ray, l= 0.15406 nm, Ni filter, scan ratio is 2° min‒1 under 20 mA and 40 kV). Both morphology and cross section image were characterized by SEM (LEO 1530VP). The electrical characteristics were performed by a 4155B Agilent Semiconductor Parameter Analyser at room temperature. The thickness of films was measured with Veeco Dektak 6 M 3D profilometer.

Results and discussion

Structure and morphology

        In FT-IR spectra, 1074 and 960 cm1 are attributed to out-of-plane and in-of-plane vibration of oxadiazole rings, 1559 and 1531 cm‒1 assigned to vibration of oxadiazole rings. The peaks of 1700 to 1734 cm‒1 are assigned to C=N of oxadiazole rings, the aromatic ring bands appeared at 1607, 1581, and 1496 cm‒1. In FT-IR spectra of MWCNTs-APND, two new peaks of 1647 and 1635 cm‒1, are assigned to carbonyl vibration bands (vC=O amide).

Figure 1 FT-IR spectra of APND (a)MWCNTs-APND(b) on Perkin-Elmer System 2000 spectrophotometer (KBr pellets).

Figure 1 FT-IR spectra of APND (a)MWCNTs-APND(b) on Perkin-Elmer System 2000 spectrophotometer (KBr pellets).

     Above results support the successful modification of the oxidized MWCNTs via amide, as depicted in Scheme 1.


Scheme 1. Schematic image of MWCNTs modified with 2-(4-aminophenyl)- 5-naphthyl -1,3,4- oxadiazole.

      In 1H-NMR spectra shown in Figure 2, the 5.9~6.0 ppm peaks are assigned to amino groups, the chemical shift of phenylene proton appeared at 6.7~7.0 ppm, and proton of naphthyl rings at 7.7~8.3 ppm. The proton resonances of anchored APND in MWCNTs-APND were broader and weaker than those of the APND. The signal from protons of MWCNTs-APND is not split and shifted up-field, which is likely attributed to the interaction between MWCNTs and APND, as well as magnetic-field induced partial orientation of MWCNTs [20,21], indicating that APND is attached on the surfaces of MWCNTs via amide linkages.

Figure 2 1H-NMR spectra of the sample. (a) APND and (b) MWCNTs-APND in DMSO-D6 solution

Figure 2 1H-NMR spectra of the sample. (a) APND and (b) MWCNTs-APND in DMSO-D6 solution

       As shown in Figure 3a, after oxidized by a mixture of H2SO4 and HNO3, MWCNTs are still flexible and linear with diameter ranging from 20 to 80 nm, followed by some short tubes. The cross section image of MWCNTs-APND in Figure 3b shows the uniform and dense films, indicating the strong attraction between coplanar APND and sidewalls of MWCNTs.

Figure 3 SEM images of the samples. (a) MWCNTs and (b) cross section image of MWCNTs-APND membrane

Figure 3 SEM images of the samples. (a) MWCNTs and (b) cross section image of MWCNTs-APND membrane

        In the XRD patterns of Figure 4a, the MWCNTs exhibit an intense Bragg reflection at about 25º, corresponding to the interlayer spacing of the concentric cylinders of graphitic carbon. Except for the reflection of MWCNTs, MWCNTs-APND have some new broad peaks at low 2θ angles (Figure 4b) from complicated diffractogram of APND (Figure 4c), further confirming that the APND formed a highly regulated π-stacking aggregate onto the surfaces of MWCNTs.

Figure 4 XRD patterns of thin films. (a) MWCNTs, (b) MWCNTs-APND, and (c) APND

Figure 4 XRD patterns of thin films. (a) MWCNTs, (b) MWCNTs-APND, and (c) APND

UV-Vis absorption and Photoluminescence properties

        The UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence are used to measure the interaction between APND and MWCNTs. As shown in Figure 5a, 342 nm absorption of APND is associated with π-π* transition. The 370 nm broadened absorption of MWCNTs-APND show the π-π interaction between sidewalls of MWCNTs and APND. In Figure 5b, the photoluminescence band gap of MWCNTs-APND estimated by 560 nm absorption edge is about 2.2 eV, which is lower than that of APND, thus considering that the π-stacking reaction between MWCNTs and APND induce new π-delocalization structure. Excited by 330 nm wavelength, the photoluminescence of APND consists of two maximum peaks of 425 and 520 nm because the steric hindrance among neighboring aromatic rings change their π-conjugated characteristic. However, MWCNTs-APND show a narrower band than APND at 473 nm, indicating that a stronger π-π* interaction between MWCNTs and APND due to π-stacking [22,23]. A weak photoluminescence spectrum in MWCNTs solution is similar with that of DMF solution, which is likely caused by solvent effect of DMF.

Figure 5 The optical spectra of APND, MWCNTs-APND, and MWCNTs in DMF solution at room temperature. (a) UV-Vis absorption and (b) photoluminescence spectra

Figure 5 The optical spectra of APND, MWCNTs-APND, and MWCNTs in DMF solution at room temperature. (a) UV-Vis absorption and (b) photoluminescence spectra

Electronic interaction

        A multi-finger electrodes system covered the films on them is used to measure electrical transport of APND, MWCNTs, and MWCNTs-APND. As shown in Figure 6a, the membranes of APND show low currents and an ohmic behaviour (Figure 6a) and the conductance higher than 1.0 TW‒1 in the linear region of conductance vs. voltage (the inset of Figure 6a), indicating its better insulating characteristics. In Figure 6b, the current increase with the thicknesses of APND films within 10‒11A, which is supposed that the conductivity is based on intermolecular hopping by the conducting channels.

Figure 6 Electrical transport of APND films deposited on coplanar interdigitated copper electrodes. (a) I-V curves and C-V curves (inset), and (b) current-thicknesses plot.

Figure 6 Electrical transport of APND films deposited on coplanar interdigitated copper electrodes. (a) I-V curves and C-V curves (inset), and (b) current-thicknesses plot.

        Under identical bias voltage, the membrane of MWCNTs is nonlinear I-V curves up to 10 mA and about 102 MW‒1 conductance (Figure 7a), the current increasing with the thickness of MWCNTs deposited on multi-finger electrodes (Figure 7b). I-V nonlinear properties of the MWCNTs-APND films are consistent with that of MWCNTs while their current threshold decrease ten times more than that of MWCNTs at about 1.0 GW‒1 (Figure 7c), the conductance of MWCNTs-APND improves 103 times more than that of APND. These results are likely their electronic states of MWCNTs and APND drastically change due to π-stacking. In addition, the current increases with the thicknesses of MWCNTs-APND deposited on multi-finger electrodes (Figure 7d), indicating that the electron hopping between APND can control electron injection or transport between the interfaces of MWCNTs, and their nonlinear properties is dominated by MWCNTs.

Figure 7 The electrical transport of MWCNTs and MWCNTs-APND films deposited on coplanar interdigitated copper electrodes. (a) I-V properties and (b) current-thickness plots of MWCNTs films, (c) I-V properties and (d) current-thickness plots of MWCNTs-APND films

Figure 7 The electrical transport of MWCNTs and MWCNTs-APND films deposited on coplanar interdigitated copper electrodes. (a) I-V properties and (b) current-thickness plots of MWCNTs films, (c) I-V properties and (d) current-thickness plots of MWCNTs-APND films

Conclusions

        MWCNTs were successfully modified with APND through amide linkage. The nonlinear properties of MWCNTs-APND is consistent with MWCNTs due to p-stacking of APND on the sidewalls of MWCNTs, thus enhancing the current of APND without crystallization. This is potential to be used for light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, and photovoltaic devices.

References

  1. Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, N. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, Z. Zhou, L. Wei, Photovoltaic enhancement of Si solar cells by assembled carbon nanotubes. Nano-Micro Lett. 2, 22 (2010). doi:10.5101/nml.v2i1.p22-25
  2. V. Thu, P. Dung, L. Tam, P. Tam, Biosensor based on nanocomposite material for pathogenic virus detection. Colloids Surf. B. 115, 176 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2013.11.016
  3. S. Shumaila, S. Parveen, J. Ali, A. Kumar, M. Husain, Field emission of MWCNTs/PANI nanocomposites prepared by ex-situ and in-situ polymerization methods. Polym. Composite 34, 1298 (2013). doi:10.1002/pc.22542
  4. J. Zhao, P. Liu, Z. Yang, P. Zhou, Y. Zhang, One-Step cutting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes using nanoscissors. Nano-Micro Lett. 3, 86 (2011). doi:10.3786/nml.v3i2.p86-90
  5. A. Wang, Y. Fang, W. Yu, L. Long, Y. Song, W. Zhao, M. Cifuentes, M. Humphrey, C. Zhang, Allyloxyporphyrin-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Synthesis by radical polymerization and enhanced optical-limiting properties. Chem-Asian. J. 9, 639 (2014). doi:10.1002/asia.201301379
  6. N. Nismy, K. Imalka Jayawardena, A. Adikaari, S. Silva, Photoluminescence quenching in carbon nanotube-polymer/fullerene films: Carbon nanotubes as exciton dissociation centres in organic photovoltaics. Adv. Mater. 23, 3796 (2011). doi:10.1002/adma.201101549
  7. H. Kou, L. Jia, C. Wang, W. Ye, A nitrite biosensor based on the direct electron transfer of hemoglobin immobilized on carboxyl-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polyimide composite. Electroanal. 24, 1799 (2012). doi:10.1002/elan.201200275
  8. A. Giuliani, M. Placidi, F. Francesco, A. Pucci, A new polystyrene-based ionomer/MWCNT nanocomposite for wearable skin temperature sensors. React. Funct. Polym. 76, 57 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2014.01.008
  9. J. Nicolas, Y. Guillaneuf, C. Lefay, D. Bertin, D. Gigmes, B. Charleux, Nitroxide-mediated polymerization. Prog. Polym. Sci. 38, 63 (2013). doi:10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2012.06.002
  10. J. Wang, F. Zhang, J. Zhang, W. Tang, A. Tang, H. Peng, Z. Xu, F. Teng, Y. Wang, Key issues and recent progress of high efficient organic light-emitting diodes. J. Photoch. Photobio. C: Photoch. Rev. 17, 69 (2013). doi:10.1016/j.jphotochemrev.2013.08.001
  11. Y. Wang, X. Gao, B. Song, Y. Gu, Y. Sun, Photoelectrochemical properties of MWCNT-TiO2 hybrid materials as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. Chin. Chem. Lett. 25, 491 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.cclet.2014.01.003
  12. M. Al-bahrani, X. Xu, W. Ahmad, X. Ren, J. Su, Z. Cheng, Y. Gao, Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell with GNS/MWCNT/PANI as a counter electrode. Mater. Res. Bull. 59, 272 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.materresbull.2014.07.029
  13. G. Bottari, O. Trukhina, M. Ince, T. Torres, Towards artificial photosynthesis: Supramolecular, donor–acceptor, porphyrin and phthalocyanine/carbon nanostructure ensembles. Coordin. Chem. Rev. 256, 2453 (2012). doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2012.03.011
  14. E. Choi, S. Roh, C. Kim, Noncovalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with pyrene-linked nylon66 for high performance nylon66/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites. Carbon 72, 160 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2014.01.068
  15. S. Detriche, S. Devillers, J. Seffer, J. Nagy, Z. Mekhalif, J. Delhalle, The use of water-soluble pyrene derivatives to probe the surface of carbon nanotubes. Carbon 49, 2935 (2011). doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2011.03.002
  16. J. Yu, J. Shapter, M. Johnston, J. Quinton, J. Gooding, Electron-transfer characteristics of ferrocene attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) arrays directly anchored to silicon (100). Electrochim. Acta 52, 6206 (2007). doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2007.03. 071
  17. B. Zhang, S. Shi, W. Shi, Z. Sun, X. Kong, M. Wei, X. Duan, Assembly of ruthenium(II) complex/layered double hydroxide ultrathin film and its application as an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence sensor. Electrochim. Acta 67, 133 (2012). doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2012.02.039
  18. M. Rouhani, A. Ramazani, S. Joo, Novel, fast and efficient one-pot sonochemical synthesis of 2-aryl-1,3,4- oxadiazoles. Ultrason. Sonochem. 21, 262 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2013.06.009
  19. B. Yu, J. Yang, W. Li, In vitro capability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified with gonadotrophin releasing hormone on killing cancer cells. Carbon 45, 1921 (2007). doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2007.06.015
  20. W. Bai, D. Zhuo, X. Xiao, J. Xie, J. Lin, Conductive, mechanical, and chemical resistance properties of polyurushiol/multiwalled carbon nanotube composite coatings. Polym. Composite 33, 711 (2012). doi:10.1002/pc.22195
  21. F. Chouit, O. Guellati, S. Boukhezar, A. Harat, M. Guerioune, N. Badi, Synthesis and characterization of HDPE/N-MWNT nanocomposite films. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9, 288 (2014). doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-288
  22. M. Khan, V. Filiz, G. Bengtson, S. Shishatskiy, M. Rahman, V. Abetz, Functionalized carbon nanotubes mixed matrix membranes of polymers of intrinsic microporosity for gas separation. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 504 (2012). doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-504
  23. X. Du, H. Liu, G. Cai, Y. Mai, A. Baji, Use of facile mechanochemical method to functionalize carbon nanofibers with nanostructured polyaniline and their electrochemical capacitance. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 111 (2012). doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-111

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-12-0356), Shanghai Natural Science Foundation (13ZR1456600), and the Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning. We also acknowledge analysis support from the Instrumental Analysis Center of Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

References

  1. Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, N. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, Z. Zhou, L. Wei, Photovoltaic enhancement of Si solar cells by assembled carbon nanotubes. Nano-Micro Lett. 2, 22 (2010). doi:10.5101/nml.v2i1.p22-25
  2. V. Thu, P. Dung, L. Tam, P. Tam, Biosensor based on nanocomposite material for pathogenic virus detection. Colloids Surf. B. 115, 176 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2013.11.016
  3. S. Shumaila, S. Parveen, J. Ali, A. Kumar, M. Husain, Field emission of MWCNTs/PANI nanocomposites prepared by ex-situ and in-situ polymerization methods. Polym. Composite 34, 1298 (2013). doi:10.1002/pc.22542
  4. J. Zhao, P. Liu, Z. Yang, P. Zhou, Y. Zhang, One-Step cutting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes using nanoscissors. Nano-Micro Lett. 3, 86 (2011). doi:10.3786/nml.v3i2.p86-90
  5. A. Wang, Y. Fang, W. Yu, L. Long, Y. Song, W. Zhao, M. Cifuentes, M. Humphrey, C. Zhang, Allyloxyporphyrin-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Synthesis by radical polymerization and enhanced optical-limiting properties. Chem-Asian. J. 9, 639 (2014). doi:10.1002/asia.201301379
  6. N. Nismy, K. Imalka Jayawardena, A. Adikaari, S. Silva, Photoluminescence quenching in carbon nanotube-polymer/fullerene films: Carbon nanotubes as exciton dissociation centres in organic photovoltaics. Adv. Mater. 23, 3796 (2011). doi:10.1002/adma.201101549
  7. H. Kou, L. Jia, C. Wang, W. Ye, A nitrite biosensor based on the direct electron transfer of hemoglobin immobilized on carboxyl-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polyimide composite. Electroanal. 24, 1799 (2012). doi:10.1002/elan.201200275
  8. A. Giuliani, M. Placidi, F. Francesco, A. Pucci, A new polystyrene-based ionomer/MWCNT nanocomposite for wearable skin temperature sensors. React. Funct. Polym. 76, 57 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2014.01.008
  9. J. Nicolas, Y. Guillaneuf, C. Lefay, D. Bertin, D. Gigmes, B. Charleux, Nitroxide-mediated polymerization. Prog. Polym. Sci. 38, 63 (2013). doi:10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2012.06.002
  10. J. Wang, F. Zhang, J. Zhang, W. Tang, A. Tang, H. Peng, Z. Xu, F. Teng, Y. Wang, Key issues and recent progress of high efficient organic light-emitting diodes. J. Photoch. Photobio. C: Photoch. Rev. 17, 69 (2013). doi:10.1016/j.jphotochemrev.2013.08.001
  11. Y. Wang, X. Gao, B. Song, Y. Gu, Y. Sun, Photoelectrochemical properties of MWCNT-TiO2 hybrid materials as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. Chin. Chem. Lett. 25, 491 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.cclet.2014.01.003
  12. M. Al-bahrani, X. Xu, W. Ahmad, X. Ren, J. Su, Z. Cheng, Y. Gao, Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell with GNS/MWCNT/PANI as a counter electrode. Mater. Res. Bull. 59, 272 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.materresbull.2014.07.029
  13. G. Bottari, O. Trukhina, M. Ince, T. Torres, Towards artificial photosynthesis: Supramolecular, donor–acceptor, porphyrin and phthalocyanine/carbon nanostructure ensembles. Coordin. Chem. Rev. 256, 2453 (2012). doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2012.03.011
  14. E. Choi, S. Roh, C. Kim, Noncovalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with pyrene-linked nylon66 for high performance nylon66/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites. Carbon 72, 160 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2014.01.068
  15. S. Detriche, S. Devillers, J. Seffer, J. Nagy, Z. Mekhalif, J. Delhalle, The use of water-soluble pyrene derivatives to probe the surface of carbon nanotubes. Carbon 49, 2935 (2011). doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2011.03.002
  16. J. Yu, J. Shapter, M. Johnston, J. Quinton, J. Gooding, Electron-transfer characteristics of ferrocene attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) arrays directly anchored to silicon (100). Electrochim. Acta 52, 6206 (2007). doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2007.03. 071
  17. B. Zhang, S. Shi, W. Shi, Z. Sun, X. Kong, M. Wei, X. Duan, Assembly of ruthenium(II) complex/layered double hydroxide ultrathin film and its application as an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence sensor. Electrochim. Acta 67, 133 (2012). doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2012.02.039
  18. M. Rouhani, A. Ramazani, S. Joo, Novel, fast and efficient one-pot sonochemical synthesis of 2-aryl-1,3,4- oxadiazoles. Ultrason. Sonochem. 21, 262 (2014). doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2013.06.009
  19. B. Yu, J. Yang, W. Li, In vitro capability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified with gonadotrophin releasing hormone on killing cancer cells. Carbon 45, 1921 (2007). doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2007.06.015
  20. W. Bai, D. Zhuo, X. Xiao, J. Xie, J. Lin, Conductive, mechanical, and chemical resistance properties of polyurushiol/multiwalled carbon nanotube composite coatings. Polym. Composite 33, 711 (2012). doi:10.1002/pc.22195
  21. F. Chouit, O. Guellati, S. Boukhezar, A. Harat, M. Guerioune, N. Badi, Synthesis and characterization of HDPE/N-MWNT nanocomposite films. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9, 288 (2014). doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-288
  22. M. Khan, V. Filiz, G. Bengtson, S. Shishatskiy, M. Rahman, V. Abetz, Functionalized carbon nanotubes mixed matrix membranes of polymers of intrinsic microporosity for gas separation. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 504 (2012). doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-504
  23. X. Du, H. Liu, G. Cai, Y. Mai, A. Baji, Use of facile mechanochemical method to functionalize carbon nanofibers with nanostructured polyaniline and their electrochemical capacitance. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7, 111 (2012). doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-111

 

How to Citation

How to citation XXX

History

Article History XXX


Additional Info

  • Type of Publishing: JOUR - Journal
  • Title:

    Photoluminescence and electronic interaction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes conjugated with oxadiazole materials

  • Author: Bo-Zhang Yu, Zhi Yang, Yan-Jie Su, Hu-Lin Li
  • Year: 2014
  • Volume: 1
  • Issue: 1
  • Journal Name: Materials and Electronics Engineering
  • Publisher: Nicety Press Company Limited
  • ISSN: 2410-1648
  • URL: http://www.meej.org/volume-1/december-2014/item/367-photoluminescence-and-electronic-interaction-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-conjugated-with-oxadiazole-materials
  • Abstract:

    Fabricating dense film of the oxadiazole-based photoelectron materials is usually limited by its low crystallization, which will influence charge injection in the devices. In this paper, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are functionalized by 2-(4-aminophenyl)-5-naphthyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (APND) to form the MWCNTs-APND conjugate. The formation of MWCNTs-APND dense films may be attributed to attraction between coplanar APND, flexible and linear MWCNTs, and π-stacking between APND and MWCNTs. The APND and MWCNTs-APND were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrum, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectrum, and photoluminescence spectrum, and nonlinear electrical measurements. The results indicate UV-Vis absorption of MWCNTs-APND in N, N-dimethylformamide solution is broadened and red-shifted. Its photoluminescence spectrum shows a narrower band than that of APND. The MWCNTs-APND dense films have the same perfect nonlinear electrical properties as those of MWCNTs ones, which is suitable for the potential applications of optoelectronic devices.

  • Publish Date: Monday, 15 December 2014
  • Start Page: 4
  • DOI: 10.11605/mee-1-4